Gilly Salmon’s Five Stage Model

Gilly Salmon’s Five Stage Model


STEP 1: Watch this video called 5 Stage Model (9:05 mins) by Gilly Salmon.

Next explore this website and pay attention to the slideshow, infographic and model to familiar yourself with the process and steps of the online facilitation model.

Note: Although Gilly Salmon references ‘blended learning’ in her video, this model can be used for both blended and online learning.


  • conferencing – students communicating and collaborating
  • e-tivities – “frameworks for enabling active and participative online learning by individuals and groups” (Salmon, 2013, p. 5)
  • scaffold – refers to “teachers providing successive levels of temporary support that help students reach higher levels of comprehension and skill acquisition that they would not be able to achieve without assistance” (The Glossary of Education Reform, n.d.).

Salmon’s Five Stage Model



Figure 2: Salmon’s five stage model. Reprinted from Being a Successful Online Teacher by G. Salmon 2011. Retrieved from


Salmon, G. (2013). E-tivities: The key to active online learning (2nd ed.). London & New York: Routledge

Salmon, G. (n.d.) Salmon’s Five Stage Model. [Infographic]. Retrieved from CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

The Glossary of Education Reform by Great Schools Partnership is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.










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Fit for Online Learning Copyright © 2020 by U of L Teaching Centre: Jördis Weilandt, Erin Reid, Kristi Thomas, Brandy Old, and Jeff Meadows is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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