How it All Works Together

Learning Outcome

After completing this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Create and format reference list and in-text citations in APA Style.

As we have covered, reference list citations and in-text citations should match each other. They work together to clearly indicate which sources provide support to your assignment.

Apple MAC desktop computer showing a narrative block quote in-text citation example with the author names, publication year, and location information highlighted in green with arrows pointing to a reference list with its corresponding reference list citation highlighted in a green box. The computer sits on a white desk with a MAC keyboard, mouse, pencil, crumpled paper ball, and white bird figurine on a white background.

You wouldn’t want to wear mismatched socks, just like you don’t want mismatched citations! You want your in-text and reference list citations (and socks) to match each other!
Two mismatched socks worn below the knee on a person. The right is a white sock with three blue bands along the top. The left sock is blue with a red, navy, and white argyle design on the leg portion. Two matching white socks with a black and gray skeleton design worn below the knee. Person wearing them has right foot extended showing skeleton foot design below.

*One exception is personal communication, which is cited as an in-text citation, but is not included in the reference list.*

Group of four figures in blue with one figure in the forefront with a blue speech bubble above their head.

Why? Your reader can’t access your personal experiences.

In the next activity, you will practice matching in-text citations with their reference citation.


Image attribution:

[In-Text Citation Example in Apple MAC Desktop Computer]” from NorQuest College Library’s Intro to APA tutorials is licensed under  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International / Added updated reference and in-text citation images.

Mismatched Socks Solidarity Day” by Rik Panganiban is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International.

X-ray socks” by unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International.


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

APA Style Citation Tutorial Copyright © 2020 by University of Alberta Library is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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